A REVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS STUDIES (1983-2009) BASED ON THE EFFECTS OF SO2, ONE OF THE LOCAL OR TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTANTS ON THE FORESTS OF TURKEY

A  REVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS STUDIES (1983-2009) BASED ON THE EFFECTS OF SO2, ONE OF THE LOCAL OR TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTANTS ON THE FORESTS OF TURKEY

M. DOĞAN KANTARCI (EM)
Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry
Department of Soil Science and Ecology
Bahçeköy – Istanbul
mdkant@istanbul.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
The northern regions of Turkey from north to south have been exposed to the effects of SO 2, which is local  or foreign sourced. The need to use higher amounts of coal for the heating purposes depending on the density of  population, the spread of the thermal power plants, industrialization, and SO2 settling over the Black Sea and the Balkans are all considered as the major effects over Turkey’s forests. As a result of the attempts to make  widespread use of natural gas and to generate electricity from this gas, the effect of SO2 started to decrease in  the early 2000s. However, “the coal aid to the poor families” caused an increase in the air pollution after 2004.  The use of lignite coal in the fluid-bed thermal power plants seems to be a more practical and sensible way (in terms of less pollutant emission) than the giveaway of the lignite coal to the houses for the heating

SO2’nin ormana etkisi-Humboldt-İng.-Türkçe

TÜRKİYE’ DE İKLİM DEĞİŞİMİ SÜRECİ VE ORMANLAR İLE OTLAKLARIN SU ÜRETİMİNİN ARTTIRILMASINA ETKİSİ

TÜRKİYE’ DE İKLİM DEĞİŞİMİ SÜRECİ VE ORMANLAR İLE OTLAKLARIN SU ÜRETİMİNİN ARTTIRILMASINA ETKİSİ

Prof. Dr. M. Doğan Kantarcı

ÖZET
İklim değişimi süreci dünyada farklı bölgelerin coğrafik özelliklerine göre farklı etkiler  göstermektedir. Türkiye’de de öteden beri dikkatlerin çekildiği iklim değişikliği süreci  önce itirazlarla karşılanmışsa da, 2006-2007 kışından ve 2007 kurak yazından sonra
kabul edilmiştir. Türkiye’de iklim değişikliği süreci bir “ısınma / kuraklaşma” süreci olarak  algılanmaktadır. Meteoroloji istasyonlarımızın ölçmelerini dönemsel bir düzen ile  incelersek 1993 yılından beri bir ısınma dönemine girdiğimizi farkeder iz. Bu ısınma  sürecinin Trakya’da Ergene Havzası’nda yapabileceği etki ve sulama suyu ihtiyacı  üzerinde 1997’den beri hesaplamalar ve yayınlar yapmış, dikkat çekmeye çalışmıştık…

İklim değişimi süreci ormanlar ve su üretimi

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ARIDITY ON ERGENE RIVER BASIN WATER PRODUCTIVITY

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ARIDITY ON ERGENE RIVER BASIN WATER PRODUCTIVITY

International conferance on climate change and midle east past, present and future

20-23 november Istanbul

Prof. Dr. M. Doğan KANTARCI
Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Soil Science and Ecology

Bahçeköy-Istanbul-Turkey

(mdkant@istanbul.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT
The annual mean temperature in the temperate zones in Northern Hemisphere has  increased by 1.4C due to the changes in climate and it is expected that this increase will reach 2.5C in the near future. At present, the mean annual temperature increase of 1.4C leads to a net increase of around 2.0-2.5C during the hot months of summer; resulting in increased evaporation from the water and soil surfaces while amplifying the transpiration from the plant leaves. Atmospheric CO2has reached 376 ppm as of year 2000 leading to a green-house effect and melt-down of glaciers, increased frequency and magnitude of hurricanes in oceans. Meanwhile, high mountains in Turkey also lost glaciers, large lakes such as Lake Tuz and Lake Burdur shrank, and shallow lakes such as Lake Akşehir and Lake Eber vanished. Increased evapo-transpiration could further expand the impact of the increase in temperatures by leading to escalation of summer aridity, potential harms on forests and agricultural lands, detrimental effects on fruit trees and vineyards, and amplified need for irrigation

Ergene River basin, which is the major river basin in the central plains of Thrace region of Turkey, occupies 1 453 739 hectares. Agricultural land of this basin covers 73.4% and is a lowaltitude land (<300m). Mountainous area, which provides water for irrigation reaches ~1000m and together with the forests, covers 19.3% of land. Currently, irrigated agriculture is performed on 123 827.86 hectares and this has been projected to be increased by another 257 493 hectares. The required water for irrigation of this land is 988 780 000 m3 and will reach 1 914 590 000 m3 by the projected increase in irrigated agricultural land. Together with the water required for drinking and house-hold use, total amount of water resources should reach 2 149 600 000 m3 in near future.
Lüleburgaz Meteorological Station is located in the heart of Ergene River Basin and represents the most arid site. The analysis of the meteorological data from 1993 to 2005 has shown that the mean increase in temperature over the last 12 years was 1.2C compared to the means between 1929 and 1970. Meanwhile, the temperature increase during the same period in time in other urban centers in the basin such as Edirne was +0.3C, in Kırklareli +0.2C, in Çorlu +0.4C, and in Tekirdağ +0.4C. Annual precipitation changes by ±5%. Taken together, water production in Ergene Basin decreased by 765 million m3 between 1993 and 2005 compared to 1929-1970 and annual water deficit reached 798 million m3.

The majority of deficit in water is observed in and around agricultural lands (726 million m3). These data suggest that the Ergene Basin is going through a very severe aridity and the model represented by Ergene Basin in this study demonstrates the dangerous transition of low agricultural lands to arid areas as a result of climate changes

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ARIDITY ON ERGENE RIVER BASIN WATER PRODUCTIVITY